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Containment of Coastal Erosion

Forestalling Coastal Erosion at Digha-Sankarpur area


The Digha-Sankarpur area’s western sideways has become vulnerable to coastal erosion in some of its stretches due to unbridled and rampant human interventions - which in fact have proliferated like a contagion along the coastal zones of West Bengal. Containing the damages caused due to inundation of coastal areas due to periodic storm and tidal surges, seasonal high velocity winds, storms and cyclones is the loci upon which the future sustainability of the coastal communities depends to a large extent. Engineering solutions through civil constructions of appropriate shore protection measures are progressively being provided to mitigate the above hazards and to reduce the vulnerability to coastal hazards. The fecundation of the aforementioned civil constructions can only be realized if that is supplemented by construction/restoration of natural bio-shields of mangroves and other plants. Natural bio-shields will serve twin purposes

  • Safeguarding the ecological security of the Digha-Sankarpur coastal area
  • Providing livelihood opportunities to the fisherman and other inhabitants living in the coastal area through the initiation of community based afforestation programmes.

Preventive Measures at Digha-Sankarpur area under ICZM Project

Bio-shields, or vegetative cover, along coastal zones play a significant role in shore protection and also in protection of the coastal human habitations and agricultural crops against impacts of cyclones, storm surges, tidal waves etc. They contribute to overall shore protection. Under this component, coastal bio-shields are to be created in the Digha Sankarpur area, on government land.

The project is to be implemented by the Directorate of Forests, Government of West Bengal over a period of seven years. The villagers and/or local self government will be involved in the management of the proposed plantations jointly with Forest department. The approach will meet the objective of promoting joint management of coastal resources. The programme will contribute towards capacity building of coastal communities and government for community based activities related to regeneration of mangrove and other coastal plantations as bio-shields and as part of integrated coastal zone management. Involvement of the local population in creation, protection and management of the forest so created is an integral part of the project.

During feasibility study, a number of sites in the Digha-Sankarpur area were examined for development of bio-shields. Out of these, fourteen sites were finally chosen.

Site for mangrove plantation
The sites for the mangrove plantations were selected taking into consideration the topography of the coastal areas which have mudflats and gentle slopes. The sites are regularly inundated regularly by high tides. The sites are Kanaichhatta, Kaluberia, Balughata, Chakrabortychak, Rayrayanchak, Mehidinaar, Dhobaghata, Katagechia, Nijkasba under Contai and Bajkul forest ranges.

Site for coastal shelter belt (casurina) plantation
The sites for coastal shelter belt plantation were selected taking into consideration the topography of the coastal areas of Contai and Bajkul forest ranges that have also sandy soil. These areas are basically not inundated by high tides and are suitable for planting Casurina and other miscellaneous species.

Site for gap plantation
The sites for gap plantation are selected in the old plantations of coastal shelter belt mainly consisting of monoculture plantation of casurina. These sites under Contai and Bajkul forest ranges have been selected to fill up the vacant areas with suitable miscellaneous species so that these old plantations assume multiculture and multi tier character.

The plantation models that will be adopted will include the following:

  • Nursery raised sapling or potted seedlings
  • Earthen mound technique
  • Direct dibbling
  • Plantation in trenches

For creation of bio-shields, miscellaneous plantations and mangrove plantations will be taken up along the coastal zone. Apart from this, Farm Forestry and strip plantations over a limited zone will also be taken over.

Miscellaneous Plantation will be raised along the beach to act as a shelterbelt. The major plant species which will be planted will mainly consist of coastal jhaw, Thespesia, Melaleuca, Azadirachta indica, Pongamia  pinata, Acacia, Eucalyptus, , Prosopis spp, Acanthus  illicifolius, Ipomoea biloba  Pandanus spp. Lagerstroemis spp. etc.

Mangrove
A part of the coastal area is to be brought under mangrove plantation. The vegetation will comprise trees and bushes, which have the requisite features to grow in condition where their root system are regularly inundated by saline water and diluted by fresh water surface run off, occasionally. The species to be used in the plantation will mainly be Avicennia, Brugiera, Sonneratia,, Excoecaria, Zylocarpus, Eylocarpus. The mangrove plantation is proposed to be brought up in blank muddy flats on the foreshores areas of rivers and creeks to arrest silt and prevent of erosion.

Palisade
These works will be taken up along the fragile coast line where height of the bank is low. It will help to arrest the flying sand by accumulating them at the base of the structure and there by preparing the area for coastal Jhaw plantation.

Strip plantation
Strip plantations will be raised on road sides, canal banks, embankments, 7ownship areas, and river banks and rail way lands

Farm forestry
Planting will be in lines around the agricultural field.

Block or mixedplantation
When plantation are raised in blocks (solid tree planting on agricultural waste or fallow land), it may be a pure block or mixed one. Nature of species will be with deep root system.

The areas of plantation have already been identified by the Forest Department. The location details, land characteristics and suggestions for plantation of the chosen sites of the proposed plantation areas are given below:

Name of Mouza

Administrative Block

Forest Range

Forest Beat

Present land use

Topography

Remarks

Mangrove Plantation

Kanaichatta, Kaluraibarh

Contai – II

Contai

Junput

Sea residing area

Mudflat and gentle slope

Area suitable for mangrove plantation

Maitrapur

Ramnagar - I

Contai

Digha

Forest land

Mudflat and gentle slope

Area suitable for mangrove plantation

Balughata, Chakrabortychak, Rayrayan chak

Haldia municipality

Bajkul

Balughata

Forest land  & Sea coastal bhumi

Mudflat and gentle slope

Area suitable for mangrove plantation

Nijkasba, Mehedinagar, Kadirabarchar,  Dhobaghata, Kalaghechia

Khejuri II

Bajkul

Nijkasba

Forest land  & Sea coastal bhumi

Mudflat and gentle slope

Area suitable for mangrove plantation

CSB (Jhaw) plantation

Kanaichatta, Kaluraibarh

Contai II

Contai

Junput

Sandy zone

Flat and sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Dauttapur, Paschim Gadadharpur

Ramnagar I

Contai

Digha

Sandy zone

Sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Sankarpur, Chandpur

Ramnagar II

Contai

Sankarpur

Sandy zone

Sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Nijkasba, Mehedinagar, Kadirabarchar, Dhobaghata

Khejuri II

Bajkul

Nijkasba

Sandy zone

Sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Dhobaghata Bamunchak, Khejuri

Khejuri II

Bajkul

Khejuri

Sandy zone

Sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Balughata

Haldia municipality

Bajkul

Haldia

Sandy zone

Seashore area and sandy land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Sutahata

Sutahata

Bajkul

Haldia

Blank land

River embankment

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Dhalhara

Sahid matangini

Bajkul

Tamluk

Blank land

Char land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Dhalhara char

Tamluk municipality

Bajkul

Tamluk

Blank land

Char land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Mahishadal

Mahishadal

Bajkul

Mahishadal

Blanl land

Char land

Area suitable for CSB plantation

Farm Forestry

Biramput

Contai I

Contai

Junput

Irrigation land

Bundh

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Dauttapur, Paschim Gadadharpur

Ramnagar I

Contai

Digha

Irrigation land

Bundh

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Sankarpur,
Chandpur

Ramnagar II

Contai

Sankarpur

Irrigation land

Bundh

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Contai H.Q. campus

Contai I

Contai

Contai H.Q.

Forest land

Flat land

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Dhobaghata Bamunchak, Khejuri

Khejuri

Bajkul

Khejuri

Irrigation & Forest

Bundh & flat

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Nijkasba, Mehidinagar, Kadirabarchar, Dhobaghata, Olichak

Nijkasba

Bajkul

Nijkasba

Irrigation & Forest

Bundh & Flat

Area suitable for Farm Forestry Plantation

Raising and development of central Nursery

Contai Range H.Q.

Cntai I

Contai

Junput

Forest Range Office Campus

Flat land

 

Pallisade Work

Baguran Jalpai, Kanaichatta, Kaluraibarh

Contai I & II

Contai

Junput

Sea shore area

Sandy soil

 

Sankarpur Chandpur

Ramnagar I & II

Contai

Sankarpur

Sea shore area

Sandy soil

 

Strip plantation

Kanaichatta, Kaluraibarh

Contai II

Contai

Junput

Embankment

Sea dyke

Area suitable for strip plantation

Dauttapur, Paschim Gadadharpur

Ramnagar I

Contai

Digha

Embankment

Sea dyke

Area suitable for strip plantation

Sankarpur, Chandpur

Ramnagar II

Contai

Sankarpur

Embank-ment

Sea dyke

Area suitable for strip plantation

Gap Plantation

Baguran Jalpai

Contai II

Contai

Junput

Under older plantation

Sandy soil

Permanent
gaps within plantation; suitable for gap plantation

Dauttapur, Paschim Gadadharpur

Ramnagar I

Contai

Digha

Under older plantation

Sandy soil

Permanent
gaps within plantation; suitable for gap plantation

Sankarpur, Chandpur

Ramnagar II

Contai

Sankarpur

Under older plantation

Sandy soil

Permanent
gaps within plantation; suitable for gap plantation

Nijkasba Mehidinagar, Kadirabarchar, Dhobaghata

Khejuri II

Bajkul

Nijkasba

Under older plantation

Sandy soil

Permanent
gaps within plantation; suitable for gap plantation

Dhobaghata Bamunchak, Khejuri

Khejuri II

Bajkul

Khejuri

Under older plantation

Sandy soil

Permanent
gaps within plantation; suitable for gap plantation

 

The local population of the project area, totaling about 5 million will be directly or indirectly be benefited by this project as the plantation activities under this project will be carried out involving the local village population. This will act as a source of income for them during the years of advance work (i.e. raising of nursery and soil preparation at site), creation phase (transplantation of seedlings from nursery to the field, or directly raising seedlings in the field) and the subsequent years of maintenance. Forest Protection Committees will be formed involving such villages where ever feasible in accordance with the existing rules and regulations so that the accordant usufructuary benefits are extended to them.

Financial Involvement

The total project cost is Rs.539,11,000/- inclusive of cost of operation and monitoring & evaluation over the project period of seven years. Head-wise breakup of the works and their costs are given below.

 

Main components

INR in lakhs

A1

Investment cost

3.01

 

A2

Operational cost

85.50

 

A

Institutional cost

 

88.51

B

Capacity building

 

28.75

C

Monitoring & Evaluation

 

16.50

D

Awareness and Extension

 

35.00

E1

Civil works

-

 

E2

Other physical work that includes the main plantation work, JFM support activities and Bio-diversity Conservation

270.35

 

E3

Grant/Assistance

-

 

E4

Goods and Equipment

-

 

E

Physical

 

270.35

F1

Operational cost

40.00

 

F2

Support cost

60.00

 

F

Department cost not to be financed

 

100.00

 

Grand Total

 

539.11

 

Total to be financed

 

439.11