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Coastal Zone Management Laws and Policies


Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991

Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Notification, 2008

Lapsing of the Coastal Management Zone (CMZ) Notification, 2008

Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 2011

FAQ on the Coastal Zone Regulation Notification, 2011 and Island Protection Zone Notification, 2011

Other Major Acts/ Policies

Major Acts/ Policies related to Coastal Zone Management

Brief description of the Acts/ Policies

Environmental Protection Act, 1986

Under this, the Coastal Regulation Zone 1991 has been notified. It authorizes the central government to protect and improve environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources, and prohibit or restrict the setting and /or operation of any industrial facility on environmental grounds.

Major Port Trust Act, 1963

Protection of environment and containing discharge of noxious wastes/filth/rubbish

The Indian Ports Act, 1908

Enactment relating to ports and port charges.
Provides for rules for the safety of shipping and
conservation of ports.

Merchant Shipping Act, 1958

Control of pollution from ships and off-shore

The National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995

This has been created to award compensation for
damages to persons, property and the environment
arising from any activity involving hazardous

The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010

The Act provides for the establishment of a National grren tribunal for the effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection, conservation of forests, and etc.

Maritimes Zones Act, 1976

Describes various zones such as territorial waters, EEZ, Continental shelf etc.

Coast Guard Act, 1978

Provides levying of heavy penalties for the pollution
of port waters In 1993, Coast Guard under Ministry of Defence, made directly responsible for combating
marine pollution. National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan, formulated in 1996, under Coast Guard Act lays down action to be taken in the event of oil spills.

Hazardous Waste Management Act, 1989

It deals with proper collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes.

Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution ) Act, 1974

Control of pollution from land-based sources includes tidal waters, unlike many other countries and has jurisdiction upto 5 km in the sea.

Biological Diversity Act, 2002

The Act covers conservation, use of biological resources and associated knowledge occurring in
India for commercial or research purposes or for the purposes of bio-survey and bio-utilisation. It
provides a framework for access to biological resources and sharing the benefits arising out of such access and use. The Act also includes in its ambit the transfer of research results and application for intellectual property rights (IPRs) relating to Indian biological resources.

Indian Fisheries Act, 1897

Offers protection to fisheries against explosives or dynamites.

Marine Fishing Regulation Act (MFRA), 1978

A model act, which provides guidelines to the
maritime states to enact laws for protection to
marine fisheries by regulating fishing in the
territorial waters. The measures include: regulation of mesh size and gear, reservation of zones for various fishing sectors and also declaration of closed seasons. Laws framed and amended from time to time by different maritime states. Coastal states ban fishing during closed season. Different closure period for different states.

Deep Sea Fishing Policy, 1991

Allows foreign fishing vessels into Indian waters
beyond 12 nautical miles. Protests from local
fishermen Charter and leasing operations of foreign
trawlers suspended in 1997.No granting of new licences to joint venture companies operating in the EEZ Deep Sea Fishing Policy, 1991 practically scrapped in 1997.

Forest Conservation Act, 1980

The Act is an interface between conservation and development. It also permits judicious and regulated use of forest land for non-forestry purposes.

Wildlife Protection
Act, 1972

Offers protection to marine biota. Creates conditions favourable for in situ conservation of fauna and flora. Amended in 1991 to prohibit fishing within the sanctuary area Gahirmatha, annual mass nesting place for Olive Ridley turtle, an endangered species, accorded the status of marine sanctuary in 1997.
Amended in 2001 to include several species of fish,
corals, sea cucumbers and sea shells in Schedule I
and III. Whale shark placed in schedule I.

Forest Conservation Act, 1980

Forest Conservation Act, 1980 provides for regulatory mechanism controlling indiscriminate diversion of forest lands for non-forestry purposes and strives to maintain a balance between conservation and development needs. The Act also provides for compensatory afforestation, catchment area treatment plan, wild life habitat improvement plan and rehabilitation plan in case diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes is approved.